The Grammar

The concordant grammar 'parsing-c.en' (for regular parsing use: 'parsing-r.en') contains the rules of syntax and corresponding changes in the several word groups because of declension resp. conjugation (verbs). As explained in the related articles (cf. the links below the text), the vocabulary as well as the grammatical forms are dissected in their smallest elements and examined with regard to their function in order to be able translating the main texts uniformly. As a result the concordant grammar treats the Greek verb as an expression of condition or function and only secondarily with regard to tense. That the general point of view is different nowadays is not surprising, because man, as a mortal being, is much impressed by the time aspect. Nevertheless the ancient Greek language teaches something else, especially in the Sacred Scriptures, on which we focus. According to concordant grammar the verb is brought before us as an indefinite FACT (aorist; read also The Greek and English Indefinite), or a going on ACT (continuous form), or a complete STATE (perfect).

Another peculiarity of the ancient Greek language is the so-called middle voice. In modern language we are used to express an action actively or passively, in order to state the relationship between the subject and the object. In ancient Greek another voice exists as well, the middle, which is neither active nor passive, even if we have to translate it thus, because of the lack of possibilities to express it. Concordant studies have shown that in the middle voice the action is remaining with the subject/object, that means, the action is remaining in a close connection to the subject/object, not going out from it or befalling it. The subject/object is neither actor nor affected, but is standing in between, in the midst of the action itself. In order to let the reader know where the Greek has this specific middle voice, which we cannot really translate into English, but have to translate it either in the active or passive voice, the passive expression of the verb form is given in italics 'I-was-baptizED' whereas the active translation has an additional sign at the end like 'I-baptize~'.

The concordant viewpoint of ancient Greek grammar is reflected in the exact equivalents of the Greek forms into the English language. Tables explaining the abbreviations of the concordant parsing can be found in the article parsing-c.en. Regarding the corresponding forms we refer to the file 'Intro_ConcGram (PDF)'.