Introduction for using the several Standard Levels in
the Interlinear Scripture Analyzer (ISA)
As a base for a concordant translation of the so called "Greek New Testament' into English, the whole vocabulary of the Word of God was divided into its smallest elements, having a meaningful language unit (morpheme). These Greek Elements furthermore were given uniform English STANDARDS, which were assigned only once to the Greek. As a result no double meanings are possible. The corresponding interlinear in ISA is named std-2.en. In order to express the whole variety in meaning of every Greek word, these STANDARDS were adapted to every lemma of the Greek Vocabulary in accord with the rules of the Greek word-building and moreover idiomatic variants were added, which, just as the STANDARDS themselves, were derived from the language usage of the Sacred Scriptures themselves by an exhaustive concordance study. The corresponding interlinears are named std-1.en and std-1b.en. std-1 is close to the lemma of the Greek words, without observing declension, while std-1b in some cases (e.g. pronouns) is considering the case-system, which makes a specific study of these word groups easier.
For a better understanding, two examples are given below:
As one can see from the second example, std-1/1b.en is differentiating between word groups, as verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc. These word groups are sometimes marked by specific suffixes. All of these suffixes resp. prefixes are also standardized in accord with the rules of the Greek word-building. They are given below for
Note that the arrangement of the several word groups was done schematically and in accord with the common viewpoint of grammar. Therefore it is possible that suffixes of adjectives for instance can be found with nouns also, etc.
In the concordant Greek English sublinear (cles.en) normally the etymological expressions of std-1.en are given, in the corresponding grammatical forms (c.f. the article 'The Grammar'). The rules of word-building were uniformly observed as shown above. Sometimes the etymological expressions are awkward in English and therefore difficult to understand, in which case variants were taken, identifiable by small letters in contrary to the CAPITAL LETTERS of the STANDARDS. For example we will take the word 'eon', literally 'UN-IF-BEING' or, more idiomatically, 'ever-BEING'. While the etymological expression is without much sense in the sublinear, the idiomatic one easily can lead to misinterpretation in meaning by definite circumstances. 'Ever-BEING' does not mean 'always being', which gives a remembrance of the common understanding of the word 'eternal' in a biblical context, but describes a period of time, which is, regarded from the perspective of human experience, unreviewable, in other words ever-BEING. But this has nothing to do with the fact that an eon has a beginning (Heb 1:2; 1Cor. 2:7; 2Tim1:9) as well as an end (Heb 9:26; 1Cor 10:11; Mat 24:3). The exact meaning of a word derives not from its etymology only, but above all from the contexts of its usage.
Occasionally large word-families differentiate in smaller groups, which have the same standard meaning in common, but idiomatically differ clearly in meaning, which can be seen through the variants. Frequently generic terms can be found among these variants, which can be taken as kinds of main variants, because they have a characteristic meaning inside their smaller word-family. If we take for example the standard 'TEACH' with the Greek Element 'da', which all members of the family TEACH have in common, we will find a subordinated group 'daimon', which got the main variant 'demon' in English. Correspondingly, the sublinear (cles.en) has the expressions 'demon', 'demonian-one', 'demoniacal'. The etymological meaning of the word TEACH can be explained, that demons are higher intelligences, which occur with all sorts of TEACHINGS and therefore are acting as TEACHERS. Nevertheless, the literal meaning is with less sense in the sublinear than the word 'demon', which the reader will easily understand.
If possible we have indicated these main variants in the std-1/1b.en, utilizing the laws of word-building, which can be seen by means of the specific suffixes. Let's have a look for instance on the Standard BEFORE-AVER with the Greek Elements 'pro/prO/por + phE'. Immediately we will find the BEFORE-AVERer or prophet, who is acting as a prophet (BEFORE-AVERER-be, prophet-be) and correspondingly is prophesying. The suffix -er shows the actor, who, in his ministry, prophet-is resp. is practicing as a prophet. Accordantly the BEFORE-AVERment is a prophecy, which has an abstract meaning, according to the laws of word-building, in contrary to something showing an ongoing process, as for instance the word 'char[s]is', 'grace', which literally means JOYing. In fact grace never stops causing JOY, it is an ongoing source of JOY.