Concordant Literal Etymological Sublinear
© 2015 Gernot R. Frey
'cles.en' is the name for the concordant etymological English interlinear, an exact representation in English of the Greek New Testament text.
'cles.en' is a revision of the CGTS (Concordant Greek Text Sublinear) which was available in older ISA versions.'cles.en' is characterized by its uniformity, its exactitude and its vivid reflection of the Greek, and aims to be as nearly Greek as can be understood by an English reader.
With very few exceptions (such as 'after' for WITH, indicating the accusative case, and 'make' for DO, because of idiomatic reasons) 'cles.en' is uniform in its renderings, that is, wherever a given Greek word occurs, the same English word is beneath it at all times. Where the Greek is alike, the English is likewise, showing to which word-family a single word belongs.
On the other hand, 'cles.en' also registers almost all the differences in the Greek. For instance, there are two negatives, but they are never confused. [ou] is always NOT, [mE] is always NO.
CAPITALS, common type and italics are used in 'cles.en'. The CAPITALS carry the reader as
close as possible to the Greek elements. Common type
is used for words when the STANDARD would not be intelligible. For example,
derived from COOL, is rendered 'soul'. Besides common type is used to
indicate the laws of the Greek word-building. Italics are used for
instance to indicate causative (-cause) and factitive (-make)
As English has no form for the Middle voice, this form is expressed by adding the '~' sign behind the word when translated actively and with italic letters when translated passively.
As the participle has no number in English, this is indicated by adding one for the singular and ones for the plural. Thus we have in Revelation 1:3 'one-readING' , in which the one- denotes the singular and the -ING the participle of the verb 'read'.
As English has no form for the indefinite (aorist) participle, it is distinguished by putting the 'ing' in italics.
Lightface is used for parts of words not really existing in the Greek but necessary for an understanding of the English equivalent as LAKEport for 'limEn', idiomatic 'harbor'.superscript: